This encyclopedia is a necessary consultant to the several ethno-linguistic teams in Africa and present day advanced center East region.
• comprises contributions from overseas students and self sustaining researchers who've lived and labored in nations comparable to Chad, Egypt, Eritrea, Guinea Conakry, Jordan, Lesotho, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Nigeria, Sudan, and Syria
• comprises bibliographic info after every one access, pictures, and an index
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Extra resources for Ethnic Groups of Africa and the Middle East: An Encyclopedia (Ethnic Groups of the World)
C. The Igbo of Southeast Nigeria. long island: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1965. Ijaw The Ijaw, also known as Ijo, Ejo, Izon, Ezon, Ejon, Uzon, or Ujon from the identify of the founding ancestor Ujo or Ojo, seem to be one of many oldest populations residing within the pass River/Niger Delta quarter of Nigeria and declare to have lived of their 129 130 Ijaw present place for over 7,000 years. Their language has no instant cognates, which is helping help the concept that they converse a distinct language known as Izon and belong to the Ijoid relations of the NigerCongo phylum, a few Ijaw declare they originated in higher Egypt whereas others say in South Africa. They quantity over 14 million humans, or 10 percentage of Nigeria’s inhabitants, and are damaged up right into a variety of subgroups, together with the Ibanji, Okrika, Kalabari, Nemba, Akassa, and Defka. it seems that the Ijaw have lived within the Delta zone prior to the 5th millennium BCE, they usually have been in a position to maintain a separate id simply because they lived the place the agriculturally established Bunue-Kwa teams have been not able to penetrate. Ijaw economics have been according to fishing; they dried and salted fish for alternate with agriculturalists for yams and different items. moreover, the Ijaw had direct entry to the ocean and in addition traded sea shells as ornamentation and salt to inland crew. within the twelfth century, a couple of states grew, and by means of the sixteenth century, the Ijaw shaped a few robust kingdoms with robust imperative rule. within the fifteenth century, they got here into touch with eu investors and have become concerned as middlemen providing slaves. round ninety five percentage of Ijaw are Christians this day, however the the rest follows the normal faith. conventional faith comprises either ancestor worship and water spirits, or owuamapu, who don't percentage shape or feelings with people. Ancestral sprits watch over the dwelling and, in honor of them, bits of nutrition from a meal are provided. additionally, conventional faith has divination as a part of its perform. it's famous that many of the conventional practices of the Ijaw are just like these of the Igbo in difficult wood carvings, dance, mask, and tune. British colonization of the Ijaw happened among 1884 and 1894 as diversified states have been compelled to comply with be British protectorates. It took until eventually 1902 to carry the complete of the Delta region lower than British keep an eye on with the defeat of the Igbo. a few of the Ijaw switched over to Christianity and sought greater jobs via schooling. Nigeria grew to become self reliant in 1960 and have become a republic in 1963. The predicament of the Biafra battle from 1967 to 1970 significantly impacted all the southern a part of Nigeria, notwithstanding the Ijaw didn't aid the Igbo try for independence. Ijaw “rebellion” all started later with the invention of oil of their a part of the rustic. Feeling denied many of the monetary merits of the oil monies, they've got develop into embroiled in clash with the govt. whereas they can make the most of higher-paying jobs, they've got no longer visible the social advancements they want. The clash has escalated with Shell Oil rigs and Shell staff being taken over or abducted through Ijaw militants.